The Rise of the American “Somm”

The reinvention of the wine professional has resulted in a new brand of next-gen swagger, complete with a revamped lexicon and liberal arts degree. Francis Percival tracks the American transition from "sommelier" to "somm."

sommelier wine illustration

For good or ill, we are living in the era of the transition from the sommelier to the “somm.” Whereas a previous generation of quiet professionals confined themselves to their fine dining restaurants, now the American sommelier is ubiquitous. On the covers of wine magazines, in documentary films and across social media it is the sommelier that has become the public face of wine.

Even the trade press is not immune. No sooner had Sommelier Journal suspended operations in October this year than the press releases were flying out to announce its acquisition and rebranding. The name, re-crafted in the hopes of reclaiming a new relevance? The SOMM Journal.

This status is changing the language of wine too, as sommelier-speak becomes a creeping presence in the wider conversation, equal parts grifter slang and wine-service Urban Dictionary. The New York Times even obligingly published a guide to talking like a somm for those seeking to know their ballers from their grandma wines. (A serious drinker liable to spend a lot of money on wine vs. a wine that is widely accepted, but not particularly interesting.)

As an Englishman I have always been a keen student of the transatlantic divide—having a southern Californian wife makes it a necessary demand of domestic harmony—but it has been staggering for me to witness how professional wine service has been refashioned into something close to the apotheosis of modern America: loud, and engaging; at once brutally professional and relentlessly informal; swaggering and competitive. Oh yes, and with lots of photos on Instagram.

But if America has transformed the route into the profession, the accumulated baggage of American campus culture has also shaped how sommeliers think and talk about wine. It’s become fratty. While nobody is yet hazing pledges or playing wine-pong with illustrious bottles of Burgundy, the public face of the American somm has become one of intense, but friendly competition with their bros.

It is true that many of the most overt differences between American sommeliers and their European colleagues can be explained as a simple Old World, New World cultural divide. As eating out in America has become more relaxed and informal, so too has the behavior of America’s sommeliers. Simple tableside interactions like touching guests would be unknown in most of Europe, but are now common stateside. Some young sommeliers might wear slick suits, but in other establishments they will be in barely more than a t-shirt and jeans—tattoos on display. They are, after all, Americans under the age of 40. Levi Dalton is Wine Editor for Eater NY and himself a longtime sommelier with experience at restaurants like Masa and various outposts of the Boulud restaurant group. Now in his mid-thirties, his career has been long enough to see the change in style of service: “Now, if you play by the old rules you are out of a job.”

Stories about ebullient Americans and reserved Europeans have been written for centuries, but they do not explain much beyond the fact that American sommeliers work in America and European sommeliers work in Europe. Transpose sommeliers to another country and they will soon adopt the tableside manners of their new home.

Across the world, the culture of the current generation is shaped by the dynamics of our education system. As one French winemaker told me, “I much prefer working with American sommeliers; in France they tend to be high-school drop-outs who were not bright enough to go to college.” This is perhaps harsh, but it is true that the French system favors early specialization, forcing youths of 16 to opt between a vocational or academic pathway. In this respect Pascaline Lepeltier, the Wine Director at Rouge Tomate in New York City and Brussels, is an interesting case. A French woman who opted for the life of a sommelier over that of an academic philosopher, she is careful to note that things are changing in France, but acknowledges that, “if you don’t fit this [academic] model, you find yourself in some other establishment where you may be voie de garage, or in the “garage lane,” for drop outs. Hospitality school used to be a big one, with a lot of kids told they could not do anything else.”

In contrast, American sommeliers tend to have bachelor’s degrees in an astonishing diversity of—albeit largely humanities—majors. In researching this piece I spoke with ex-linguists, literary scholars, economists, philosophers and a fine art major. A typical American sommelier might have worked front of house to earn some money during college, but they will not have dedicated themselves totally to their profession until they reach their early mid-twenties. It is no surprise that they are more enthusiastic than a sullen French teenager.

But if America has transformed the route into the profession, the accumulated baggage of American campus culture has also shaped how sommeliers think and talk about wine. It’s become fratty. While nobody is yet hazing pledges or playing wine-pong with illustrious bottles of Burgundy, the public face of the American somm has become one of intense, but friendly competition with their bros. Talk of “unicorn wines” (wines of extreme rarity) abounds, with triumphant exchanges over Twitter confirming recent conquests. (I should note, that this does not mean that it’s completely dominated by men. Linda Milagros Violago, a sommelier who is now the wine director at NYC’s Contra and has worked everywhere from Mugaritz in Spain to Geranium in Copenhagen, insists that, “it’s much more of a boys’ club in Scandinavia.” Some of the most enthusiastic participants in the jockish world of social media wine banter are women.)

At the same time, the language and tone with which sommeliers talk about wine has never been more influential. Like America itself, the American wine community is grappling with the challenges of a multi-polar world. Rather than shifting geopolitics, the problem for the wine world is something that might at first seem much more straightforward: what is a good wine and how do you decide if it is good? Where in the late 1990s a sommelier could expect to serve guests already fired up by the points scores of critics like Robert Parker or the Wine Spectator, the fragmentation of the critical universe has made answering this question the sommelier’s own responsibility. Levi Dalton remembers: “In the old days, you were reacting to a remote authority figure, who had already made people excited.” Now the world is different and Dalton is blunt about new rules. “The sommelier must enthuse or die.”

This has given the modern somm the chance to celebrate his or her own ethical values. For Pascaline Lepeltier this has a political edge. “Today it seems you can have a louder voice by buying certain things (and not others) than by voting,” she says. “I am talking less about a ‘style’ [of wine] than about a philosophy of what farming and winemaking should be. The style being more the final interpretation by an individual winemaker of that philosophy.”

The wines embraced by this new somm are diverse, but the unifying factor is the culture of the sommeliers themselves. I am sure that the bright young liberal arts graduates prowling the floor today or trumpeting loudly over social media have not self-consciously recreated a wine version of college fraternities, but they have arrived at something remarkably similar. The somm is a sommelier seen through this lens. And today, the difference between a good, bad or indifferent somm depends largely on whether the message is lost in the medium.

FROM AROUND THE WEB

Francis Percival is the a co-founder and convenor of the London Gastronomy Seminars and the food editor and columnist for The World of Fine Wine, for which he won the Louis Roederer International Wine Columnist of the Year award in 2013. His work has also appeared in Culture, Decanter, Saveur and the Financial Times. He lives in London.

  • Cara Patricia

    The Service portion of any Court of Master Sommeliers exam IS the hazing period.

    • Dan Perlman

      Except that those exams are completely optional for being a sommelier (or “somm”), and much of the point of this article is that that whole world is becoming less important, if important at all.

      • Chris Grocki

        The Court remains exceptionally important insofar as professionalism goes. By definition, you can’t be a certified Somm without a certification. They are still the de facto superlative, whether you want to leave the exam and put on a t-shirt and jeans or an Italian suit. A self-titled sommelier without a certification is a pilot without a license. I’m not calling you Captain. Or getting on your plane.

        • Dan Perlman

          Look, I’ve been through the exams and have my Advanced from them and am a candidate for the MS, but while I’d agree that they may be the gold standard, certification from the Court is not by any stretch of the imagination a requirement to be a sommelier. Far more common in the US is certification from either the SSA or ASA, not from the Court, and the same is true around the world from the various national sommelier associations. Your analogy doesn’t work – if you get on a plane, sure,you want to be sure that your pilot has a pilot license (though I’ll bet you’ve never inquired), and it’s pretty much an assumption that they do (although, again, there’s certainly not international licensing body, it’s country by country). But I would doubt, other than just out of curiosity, anyone, including yourself, has ever even asked, and certainly not refused to order wine or dine in a restaurant without determining if the sommelier on staff has certification from the Court, or any other body for that matter.

          • Chris Grocki

            We all have to get from point A to B, but I’d much rather have you flying the plane. The article mentions that being “brutally professional” is at the heart of the new rules. While you certainly CAN be a self-made man or woman in this sense, there’s a lot of swagger and know-how you can’t expect from people in medium-sized or smaller markets without an outside standard. It’s a bit narrow to be beholden to any one set of evaluation criteria, I agree, but I suppose I’m just a little over the idea of any person with a wine key who’s not your waiter being a “sommelier.” I can wax poetically and decant just fine, but if you ask for a somm, I’ll introduce you to my Wine Director.

          • Dan Perlman

            On that, we agree.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            Dan I couldn’t disagree more. “Sommelier” is a qualification, not just a job position like “receptionist”. It’s insulting to all those individuals who busted their ass and really studied and trained to get to the title. Too many of these guys in the US just slap the word
            Around like nothin’s nothin’. Are you a lawyer because you watched Perry Mason, read a “dummies
            Guide
            To the law” and work as an intern in a law firm ??

          • Jonathan Greschler

            I am neither pro nor anti “the court,” but I am pro-“somm”, i.e. a re-evaluation of how one is trained and, further, what a somm should be doing. I have had much guidance and positivity from the court-somm community–and if I’ve gleaned anything from these very dedicated and talented people it’s the inclusionary nature of what wine service ought to be. Many of us, with 15+ years of experience running wine programs, studying to teach our staffs and help our guests, can’t stop working long enough to stay within the life that is the MS exam pathway–too busy running our programs and paying rent. Do this long enough and one comes to the realization that while the certification is great–but the job of being a somm runs parallel to it.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            I’m not talking about the court. There are many properly qualifying Sommelier schools…like the North American Sommelier Association. Pick one…the court is just one of them. Pepsi, Coke, Joe-Shmo Cola…but at least pick one. Study and put in the work and training. Wine is a complex thing…you don;t read 2 books, work as a waiter for 2 years, visit a few wineries on vacation in France and Italy and bang you’re a Somm and call yourself such.

          • Dan Perlman

            Diego, I”m not sure what your disagreeing with or insulted by. I never said someone shouldn’t be qualified or trained, I said that the majority are certified by other organizations than the Court, and that taking the exams of the Court are completely optional for a career as a sommelier. Far, far more people have gone through the 20+ week training programs of the ASA or SSA in the United States and gotten certified through one of them than have taken the 3 day program to get certified by the Court.. Which one do you think provides better training and study opportunities? I’ve done both, so I have a pretty good sense of the answer to that.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            Hey Dan. I meant I could;t disagree more with much of what the “Somm trend” in the USA is carrying. I keep meeting people that say “I’m a Somm” and when asked “Were did you certify ?” they go blank and say “Oh ‘m self taught and been working in restaurants many years”. For real dude ? The problem is the qualification in America is not intrinsic in history. It basically has not had any type of social enforcement. Unlike “attorney” or “therapist” etc…so many take advantage of this and slap the word around but they are NOT qualified….and indeed there are many of these hipster “Somms” that I wouldn’t give 2 pennies for.

          • Dan Perlman

            Gotcha. But, I would disagree that it’s different in other countries. Most of the sommeliers I’ve met in traveling in Europe and Latin America have little or no training except on the job and no certification, but still call themselves sommeliers. It’s not by any stretch specific to the US. And I’d bet you’d find there are far more certified sommeliers in the US than there are anywhere else – and that includes those of us who’ve been certified to either Advanced or Masters level through the Court.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            That’s not true. In Italy you call yourself a Sommelier if you have certified with the AIS or the FISAR…AIS counts 30,000 members, of which a good portion are certified Somms. France has the FSF…and I interned and lived there for years…no one dares say “I’m a Somm” without being certified…unless he is clearly trying to voluntarily be deceiving.

          • Dan Perlman

            Sorry, but that’s just not the case in my experience, though I can only vouch for my own experience. I’ve met many French sommeliers who’ve never been certified, by any organization. Likewise in Italy, England, and Germany, all of which I’ve spent time in. I couldn’t begin to count the numbers who just started as a waiter and got assigned the wine program somewhere along the way, along with the title. That may be changing with time, but so is the field, and that process, in the U.S. Either way, this is way off track from where the conversation started, which is simply that given how optional taking an exam from the Court is, and how basic the first level exam is, it doesn’t really count as an industry-wide “hazing” for sommeliers.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            Hmmm…weird. When where you there ? I am native Italian (Piemonte) and moved to LA in 2006…so I have not been professionally active in Italy for some years now. But it does seam strange to me…also because the AIS pin (tastevin, silver or gold) is very well recognized in Italy thanks to a cooperation between the Italian Sommelier Association and a famous TV news channel.

            Yes I agree on the original discussion…somehow we got off track. Take care !

          • Dan Perlman

            Many times over the last 20+ years. One thing I’d say though, as well, I’m not against self-taught. There are plenty of excellent self-taught sommeliers out there, just as there are self-taught chefs in many restaurants. “Self-taught” can vary between someone, who as you say, just read a book and now claims to be a sommelier, on to someone who’s spent massive amounts of time studying and learning on their own, often more than they’d get in a formal course of study. The Court of Master Sommeliers doesn’t offer a training program, just certification exams – theoretically, and for all I know, in practice, you can be an MS and still be self-taught, or on the job taught, without ever having taken a formal class.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            And that’s where the North American Sommelier Association differs…it’s an actual school.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            PS. Have you checked out the North American Sommelier Association ? I’m involved so I may be biased, but having gone through the certifications with 3 schools, this course is the most complete and hands-on you will find. It takes time and effort…of course, like anything. Do you just pass the bar-exam to be a lawyer ? no…but check them out : http://www.nasommelier.com

            Whichever school you pick I am fine…I respect them all…as long as you actually have a certification and not “I am self taught” bull-crap.

          • Michael Solway

            Diego, I call BS on this one…actually anyone certified or not who has the knowledge of service and wine can indeed claim the title sommelier. It is not like a pilot or doctor, because opening the wrong vintage of Volnay does not result in a fiery crash or code blue.

          • Diego Meraviglia

            Disagree completely…and like me you’ll find 99% of truly certified Somms will disagree with yo too.

            How about “attorney” ? NO one dies there…how about Beautician ?? Same thing…can;t call yourself one or even be a hairdresser without certification.

            As I said…USA simply does not have the cultural history to socially enforce this position / qualification.

            Doesn’t make it right…and it actually makes it very “convenient” for many, especially seen the latest positive trend for wine.

  • Adrian Reynolds

    Why canvas only NYC somms?

    • Michael Casey

      Because they must be the only ones that matter in US restaurant/wine busines…smh. Actually, it’s probably the only sources the writer had available for reference. Well written article though!

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  • Diego Meraviglia

    Great stuff and true. My only issue with Somms in America is there qualification. As often is the case, Europe tends to possess higher regulations for titles. Many (and I mean MANY) individuals in the US call themselves “Sommeliers” and yet have never achieved the qualification officially. They read a few books, follow a blog, visited a handful of wineries and they are now Somms. It’s as if I say I am lawyer because I watched all the seasons of Perry Mason. “sommelier” is a qualification (and ancient at that…), not a mere job position or attitude.

    • oeneophyte

      The position of sommelier has existed for several centuries, and your certification bodies are mostly a product of the late 20th century. The one you participate in is only 7 years old. Being a sommelier is about doing a job. If you are certified and you don’t work serving wine, you’re not a sommelier, but the reverse is not true. If you do the work, and make your employer money (or simply keep your job), you’re a sommelier. Certification or not. Very much unlike a doctor or a pilot. You may not wish this to be the case, but this is the reality of the hospitality business. I think certification is good when it provides people access to information, community and self-confidence. When it’s constructive. Sorry I was late to the talk. Work, you know.

      • Diego Meraviglia

        Disagree completely. Do
        You call yourself a pilot without being certified ? NO do you call yourself a lawyer without having passed the bar exam ? NO you could be a Sommelier that doesn’t practice the job…but the title comes with certification. That’s exactly the problem in this country…doesn’t matter how old or young the certifying school (PS, 7 years old but using a curriculum that is established in Europe since 1964).

  • YoRi

    My comments here are about sommelier practice at the table, interacting directly with clients. It doesn’t apply to mass media communications (blogs, radio, tv, newspaper, etc), which is related mostly to writing or public communication skills.

    Sommelier in any country usually goes through learning program. Different places, different accreditation and recognition norms. Fortunately they are some internationally recognised association like the Institute of Master of Wine that warrant a certain form of knowledge reference. Post to learning and knowledge base is human interaction and cultural reference. Good sommeliers, in a very short period of time have to distinguish your wine general preferences, your budget and make the equation with the menu, and maybe, maybe bring you into unexplored avenue. Some will be more at ease in an American other in a European cultural context.But you will only trust the advice of a sympathetic sommelier and this relies mostly on his or her human communication abilities and personality. Without any information on a pilot
    certification and flight record, you will trust the polite and smiley one over a
    bored or unhappy looking guy when you get aboard.

    • Diego Meraviglia

      Except Masters Of Wine are not Sommeliers…

      • YoRi

        I should refered to Wine & Spirit Education Trust wich seems to be a recognised program for sommelier practice, with the level 3 as a minimum. But I must recognised as mentioned by others that the title is not much protected. Personal perception here in Montreal.

        • Diego Meraviglia

          WSET does not certify Sommeliers. It’s a certification on theory and tasting but not Sommelerie

          • YoRi

            Could you please refer to what you see as a “true Sommelerie” school and program in US ?

          • Diego Meraviglia

            Hey YoRi.

            The Court of master Sommeliers is very well respected but they do not teach much. Over 80% of their certifications are SELF-STUDY.

            WSET is a good program but does NOT certify Sommeliers. It certifies generally in the filed of wine but not specifically for Sommelerie.

            I would recommend NASA (North American Sommelier Association). It is by far the most intensively taught course. It’s an a actual school.

            http://www.nasommelier.com

            Cheers !

  • Somm

    As a former sommeliere (New York’s French Culinary Institute, now called ICC and Laguna Beach, CA) my early degrees in Linguistics, with a concentration in Romance Philology (study of languages that derived from Latin) helped me more than ANY other mode of study. I speak Spanish fluently, French moderately, Portuguese, Italian etc. My MBA also helped tremendously in valuing wines for my client collections. My BA in English also taught me how to write and although my early books were on Marketing, I am now a wine columnist for many publications.

    • Allen

      Just as some cooks and their employers reference their positions as Chef (without ability, training, a refined palate, and experience), the trend is to name a “somm” as a sommelier with a similarly proportionate lack of training, experience, knowledge, and a very refined wine palate.

      Just as all chefs are cooks and not all cooks are chefs, all sommeliers are “yikes!” somms but not all somms are sommeliers.

      It is not necessary to be certified but you must have a great understanding of enology, viticulture, and what food goes correctly with each dish to improve the taste of both.

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  • Michael Casey

    Great article that represents a growing push towards alchohol-saavy, upscale, fast-casual restaurants. Maybe not true for every market but a majority of new endeavours are not Grand Award, Biblical wine list, four star adventures. They are restaurants that are designed to entertain your senses from the moment you walk in the door, the Somm is just part of that design change.

    Perhaps the follow up to this article should be, “The Death of the Somm.” Since 2008 there has been an ever growing trend to switch to mixologists to run beverage programs and that has allowed a slip in wine dedication. While this might not be the formula in A-lister cities such as New York, San Francisco or Chicago, to name a few, in the buzz cities such as Portland, Denver, Austin and Minneapolis it is exactly what is happening. I believe first and foremost that restaurants need to find a balance. Whether that is Somms learning beer and alcohol/cocktails or Mixologists need to step up and learn wine and wine service. In Denver, it is often an assistant manager who has enthusiam but lacks the education and training of wine and is second fiddle to the Mixologist that allows several wine reps to dictate the scope of their list. This allows for more variance in selections but doesn’t do the guest many favors as it doesn’t ensure quality of selection and service.

    Good start and I hope you expand on this subject further. Best wishes to the future of the PUNCH site.

    Regards,

    Mike Casey

  • Ian Mendelsohn

    I think to say that you need a certification for being a sommelier is not really understanding the history of great sommeliers and wine programs built in the last 20 years throughout the US. I have had the unique experience of working with 9 MS’s and 4 MW’s directly, and continue to count them as good friends. I also have numerous friends going through both programs today.

    My first teacher in this business was Kevin Zraly at Windows of the World. I spent an amazing week-end at The Inn at Little Washington with Patrick and Rheinhart. The late 1990’s saw Le Cirque as one of the great restaurants in the country–Ralph Hersom, and then you have Restaurant Daniel’s outstanding Sommelier Jean-Luc Le Du. I can go on and on, but to say these great men were lacking for some classification is a foolish notion.

    I do think that certifications are a great way to learn the nuts and botls, and understand the job. However, I will take a person with passion, a thirst for knowledge and hospitality any day over someone who only has a letter or two by his/her name.

    As always, only my humble opinion.

  • Dave

    In my world the title “Sommelier” is something to be obtained/earned. In my 20 plus years in the restaurant/wine business I’ve been not been certified by anyone and will never refer to myself as anything but wine director, the preferred title. Please, if you’re not certified, stop calling yourself a sommelier, please. If you think that second level pin buys you something, like a title, come see me.

    • Diego Meraviglia

      Couldn’t agree more…

    • Scrappymutt

      interesting, I’ve never thought of it that way. I mean, if you can perform the task, then you are the thing, certification or no. I know plenty of great winemakers who have never earned a winemaking degree, and I know plenty of people with winemaking degrees who’ve never made wine in their lives. In my opinion, making wine makes you a winemaker, and getting certified only helps you become better at your craft. It may help with a job application, but it doesn’t prove that you’re a winemaker. Only the stuff in the bottle can do that.
      So, if “sommelier” is simply someone who has passed a test, and no amount of skill can make you a somm, than is doesn’t that insinuate that there is no actual correlation between the title and any actual skill?

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  • vegassommeleir

    Everyone, take a deep breathe, exhale, and see the pure value in the exposure of the article.
    Everyone in the wine business benefits from pieces like this, regardless of your certificate level or hospitality position. It is a catalyst for the future; for those who seek to further their position in life through wine education and training and engage in something that is exciting, interesting and very intellectual.
    Let the public believe that we drink for a living, disregarding the immense studying, carrying cases of wine up and down stairs and trying to instill passion into our otherwise blahzay hourly staff.
    Let the wine pundits display our profession in a humorous and outlandish light, as all press is good press.
    And let the masses investigate what all the hype is about, for this will propagate and prolong the profession we all love and enjoy.
    We are part of a movement of sorts; the ground floor of a developing profession built in the blue collar realms of servitude with the intention of studying at a pace that would make a ivy league law student blush.
    Let us not make a contest of urine regarding our sub-region acumen, wall art certifications and stature of tasting menu length. Let us all embrace the fact that we all ride in this cool ass boat down a newly carved river; unafraid of critique and joined at the hip by the destiny to succeed at a life less ordinary.

  • Bill Tobey

    I’m going to approach this from a customer’s perspective. I was recently in a winery’s tasting room(un-named) in Napa. I’ve never seen that much beautiful cherry wood in my life! Tastings were $20, which I personally consider outrageous, The final wine was a Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon selling for $83. Standing near me was a group of twenty or more young professionals $20 X 20 = $400.These young professionals were talking wine. Let me rephrase that, they were lying through their teeth about what they knew about wine. Numerous times I wanted to “set them straight.” but behaved myself.

    So what does this have to do with Sommeliers? Much! Many Sommeliers act like the about young professional. I would challenge each of us to ask for every Sommelier’s proof they have graduated from a legit Sommelier training program. Next I would challenge each of us to ask for a sip of an American $30 Cab and a $90 Cab. If the Sommelier cannot deliver on the samples and particularly describe in detail the $30 Cab they are a fake. By job definition and the desire to stay continued employed the Sommelier is expected to not even talk about the $30 Cab and try to sell a Cab that costs more than $90. Do you see an inherent conflict of interest in this? I certainly do! For the record, many jobs have conflict of interests. They are unavoidable but “buyer beware.”
    Oh, back to the $83 reserve Cabernet Sauvignon. It was O.K. nothing special. In the week prior I had tasted four Cabs under $30 bucks that were better & a $50 Cab that could knock the socks of $150 Cab.
    So remember the Sommelier while a well trained professional works for you. You are the customer. The young professionals above could not have cared what the wine cost just that it was from Napa. They were just having a fun day out with friends.

    • Diego Meraviglia

      Not sure what Somms you had to deal with but a true professional and certified Somm should be capable of describing any wine to you and it your needs and your budgets. At least that’s how we trained an how we train…

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