(v.) A beer-making technique in which hops are added to a beer after it has been cooked and fermentation has begun. In most beer recipes, hops are added during the boil (when beer is cooked) so that hop resins—which provide the bitter flavor—will have a chance to become soluble and flavor the beer. The boiling process, however, minimizes the amount of complex hop flavor and aroma esters—all the citrusy, grassy, spicy character—that can be transferred to the beer. Hops added late in the boiling process provide some of these esters, but adding hops after the cooking process is done allows for the most delicate flavor and aroma molecules to survive. This practice is most common in beers with a hoppy profile, such as IPAs or pale ales.